THERMAL FLUID SYSTEMS

» Heating and cooling process temperature control from -20°F to 700°F (-29°C to 371°C)
» Over 55 years of designing and manufacturing accurate, durable and efficient systems
» Water and heat transfer systems, chillers, custom engineered designs, control panels, and much more
  • AbsoluteZero
    Absolute zero is the zero point on the Kelvine and Rankine scale. (-273.15°C or-459.67°F)
  • Alarm
    A control condition or function, indicating that the process is at a predetermined amount above and/or below the set point
  • Alarm relay options
    Normally energized (relay energized when not in alarm) normally de-energized (relay not energized unless in alarm). Latching means a reset button must be pushed when the temperature drops below the alarm setting plus dead band
  • Algorithm
    A set of rules with a finite number of steps for solving a problem
  • Alternating Current (AC)
    An electrical power system where the voltage reverses - alternating negative and positive. Typical frequency is 50 or 60 cycles per second (Hz)
  • Ambient (Temperature)
    The temperature of the immediate surroundings in which equipment is to operate
  • Ambient Compensation
    The ability of an instrument to compensate for changes in the ambient so that the changes do not affect control accuracy
  • Ampere (amp)
    The rate of ?ow of current in a circuit
  • Analog Indication
    A meter with graduated scale and a pointer that moves to indicate process condition
  • Analog Output
    A voltage or current signal that is a continuous function of the measured parameter
  • Analog Set Point
    Potentiometer adjustment of the control setting
  • Anneal
    To relieve stress in a metal or glass material by heating to just below its melting point, then gradually cooling to ambient temperature. Annealing lowers tensile strength while increasing flexibility
  • ANSI
    American National Standards Institute
  • Anti-Foam Additive
    Causes air bubbles to break on the surface, prevents build up of foam. Can also help prevent oxidation. They cannot prevent air entrainment, but function as an aid to quicker release of entrained air.
  • Anti-Oxidant (oxidation inhibitor)
    An additive to retard oxidation.
  • Anti-Rust or Anti-Corrosion Additive
    Helps prevent oxidation of metal by displacing water from metal surfaces. It plates to metal with a polarized effect to give an internal "umbrella", helping to resist iron-oxide formation.
  • ASME
    American Society of Mechanical Engineers
  • ASTM
    American Society for Testing and Materials; an agency that standardizes testing petroleum products.
  • Atmospheric Pressure (Standard)
    Pressure exerted by the earth’s atmosphere. Measured at 60°F (15°C), at sea level, standard atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psia (pounds per square inch atmospheric)
  • Auto Ignition
    Minimum temperature which a substance must be heated without application of flame or spark to cause substance to ignite.
  • Automatic Reset (Integral)
    The integral function of a control that automatically compensates for the difference between the set point and the actual process temperature. A signal moves the proportion­ing band up or down to correct for the droop or offset error.
  • Automatic Tuning (of control parameters)
    A control that calculates the optimum PID parameters with a built-in software algorithm to eliminate manual tuning efforts
  • Auxiliary Output
    Additional outputs for control of functions other than the primary control output, such as lights, buzzers, horns or gas purges that are triggered by the control alarm function
  • AWG
    American Wire Gauge
  • AWG (American Wire Gauge)
    Refers to the diameter of both power and control circuits wires. The larger the gauge number, the smaller the wire diameter
  • Bandwidth
    The total temperature variation measured at some point in the system, normally the process
  • Blown film coolers
    An in-line cooling coil located in duct work to cool hot blown film
  • Boiling Point
    The boiling point of water (100°C or 212°F at sea level), the temperature at which a substance in the liquid state transforms to the gaseous state
  • Braid
    A flexible woven covering, usually of metal wire, covering an insulated wire to provide a ground path (or shield) or to protect from mechanical damage
  • Btu
    British Thermal Unit; the amount of thermal energy required to raise one pound of water, 1°F
  • Bulb & Capillary
    Refers to thermostat construction which has a bulb filled with a fluid in the process. The increasing heat forces the fluid through a narrow tube into a bellows. The bellows actuates a snap switch, at a temperature determined by the knob setting which moves the switch toward or away from the bellows.
  • Bulkhead Fittings
    Threaded fittings used to mount or allow a connection through the wall of a tank or casing
  • Burst Firing
    A fast cycling control output, typically 3-32VDC, used in conjunction with a solid state relay
  • Calibration
    The process of adjusting an instrument so that the indication is accurate compared to the actual value
  • Calorie
    The amount of thermal energy required to raise one gram of water 1°C at 15°C
  • Cascade
    Control function where the output of one control loop provides the set point for a second loop, which determines the control action
  • Catalyst
    A material which promotes some chemical action without itself entering into the reaction.
  • Cavitation
    In a heat transfer system, failure of the material to flow to the suction of the system pump for any reason.
  • CE
    A mark that designates compliance with European Union (EU) requirements for products sold in Europe
  • Celsius (Centigrade)
    A temperature scale with 0°C defined as the ice point and 100°C as the boiling point of water at sea level
  • Centipoise and Centistoke
    A centipoise is 1/100th of the unit of absolute viscosity (the poise), e.g., the viscosity of water at 20C is approximately one centipoise. The centipoise is derived from one kinematic unit of viscosity (the centistoke), by multiplying the latter by the density of the liquid, i.e., 1 centipoise = 1 centistoke x the density of the liquid. These units are part of the metric system, commonly used in Europe and becoming adopted in the U.S. and Canada.
  • cfm
    The volumetric flow rate of a liquid or gas in cubic feet per minute
  • Chatter
    The rapid cycling of a relay due to too narrow a bandwidth in the control
  • Chiller stall
    Interruption in the flow of refrigerant through a compressor
  • Chiller, air cooled
    Configuration of refrigeration components where heat is rejected to the surrounding air utilizing a fan to blow air over a condenser coil.
  • Chiller, Split:
    Some portion of the chiller system being remote mounted such as an air-cooled condenser where weight or space are a concern.
  • Chiller, water cooled
    Configuration of refrigeration components installed where heat is rejected utilizing a water to water heat exchanger.
  • Circuit
    A complete or partial path over which current may flow.
  • Circulating liquid temperature control systems (Temperature control unit)
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Closed Loop Control
    A control system in which process temperature changes are detected by a sensor. The feedback from the sensor allows the control to make adjustments for accurate system regulation.
  • Cold Junction Compensation
    A temperature sensitive device that prevents changes in the ambient temperature from affecting the cold junction of a thermocouple
  • Compression Fittings
    Bulkhead fittings designed to allow objects to be mounted through the wall of a tank, etc.
  • Compressor
    Increases the pressure on a substance
  • Condenser
    Converts a substance from a gas into its liquid form, extracting heat from the substance
  • Conduction
    The transfer of heat from one material at a given temperature to another material at a lower temperature, while in direct contact with each other
  • Conductivity
    The ability of heat or electricity to flow through a material
  • Continuity Check
    A test that determines whether current can flow throughout the length of a circuit
  • Control Accuracy
    Maintaining a process at the desired setting. The errors or combination of errors in the entire system including the sensor, control, power, load and design inefficiencies effect control accuracy.
  • Control Loop
    The basic control loop of any automatic control system consists of: variable (process); sensor; error detector (of control); control; control element (relay, SSR, SCR); and temperature indication
  • Control Mode
    The method in which the control restores the system temperature to set point. On/Off, proportioning, and PID are the most common control mode
  • Control Type
    Options are direct acting (cooling) and reverse acting (heating)
  • Convection
    The transfer of heat from a source or higher temperature area in a gas or liquid by the movement and mixing of the masses
  • Cooling Tower
    Heat removal device used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere through the evaporation of water or air to cool the working fluid.
  • Corrosion Inhibitor
    An additive used to retard the corrosion process.
  • CPS (Hertz)
    Cycles per Second
  • CSA
    Abbreviation for third party testing and approval agency, Canadian Standards Association
  • C-UL
    This is an acceptance of UL (Underwriter’s Laboratory) approval of a product.
  • Current
    Measured in amperes (A), is the flow of electricity. One ampere is one coulomb per second
  • Current Limiting
    A means to limit the current delivered to a load by a power control device, usually an SCR
  • Current Proportioning
    Typically 4-20 milliamp current output which provides a current proportional to the amount of control required
  • Current Transformer
    A transformer designed to accommodate an electrical conductor, and provide a reduced, but linear output at a lower current, for instrument use
  • Cycle Rate (or Cycle Time)
    In a time proportioning control, the period (usually in seconds) of time that is required to complete one on/off cycle once temperature has settled at the center of the proportioning band
  • Default Parameters
    The programming instructions permanently written in the software
  • Definite Purpose Magnetic Contactor
    Similar to a motor starter relay, used with on-off controllers for slow processes
  • Density
    Mass per unit of volume, such as lbs/cubic ft
  • Deposits
    Oil-insoluble materials that result from oxidation of the oil and contamination from external sources and settle out in system components as sludge and varnish.
  • Derivative (Rate)
    A control function that measures the rate of increase or decrease of the system temperature and prevents an overshoot condition at initial heat-up and with system disturbances
  • Deviation
    The difference between the selected value and the actual value
  • Deviation Alarm
    An offset value that follows the set point where if Deviation Alarm value is +20°F and the set point is 250°F, then the Deviation Value alarm would be 270°F
  • Deviation Meter
    The display of process temperature on meter that indicates difference of or deviation of the process temperature from the set point
  • Dielectric Strength
    An amount of voltage that an insulating material can withstand before an electrical breakdown occurs
  • Differential
    The temperature difference expressed in degrees between where the control switches off and on<
  • Differential (Dead Band)
    is the difference in degrees between temperature control on and off. Also applies to over temperature controls
  • Differential (Dead Band)
    is the difference in degrees between temperature control on and off. Also applies to over temperature controls
  • Digital Indication
    The actual process temperature in indicated by LED or LCD display
  • Digital Set Point
    The desired temperature value is set by an operator
  • DIN
    Deutsche Industrial Norms, a German agency that sets engineering standards
  • Direct Current (DC)
    An electric current flowing in one direction
  • Disconnect
    A main power switch, which provides a means to turn off power before opening a door for servicing. Most disconnects do not provide over current protection that must be provided upstream using fuses or circuit breakers
  • Display Accuracy
    The amount of potential error between a measured value and the control's displayed value
  • Drift
    A change in a value over a long period due to changes in factors such as ambient temperature, time or line voltage
  • Droop
    In time proportioning controls, the difference in temperature between the set point and where the system temperature stabilizes. Corrected by automatic or manual reset
  • Dual circuit chillers
    Multiple compressors used to improve chiller efficiency under varying load conditions
  • Dual Output
    The primary control output will regulate the process temperature. A secondary control output will be utilized for process cooling or as an alarm.
  • Duty Cycle
    The ratio of on time to on time plus off time, expressed as a percentage
  • Dwell
    A time entered into a program during which the set point (SP) remains constant.
  • Efficiency (control)
    The amount of useful output versus energy input, expressed as a percentage
  • Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
    Electrical and magnetic “noise” than can be generated when switching AC power. EMI can interfere with the operation of microprocessor based controls
  • Emissivity
    The ratio of radiant energy emitted from a surface compared to the radiant energy emitted from a black body at the same temperature
  • Endothermic
    When a process absorbs heat
  • Enthalpy
    The sum of the internal energy of a body and the product of its volume multiplied by the pressure used to evaluate the energy change occurring when a vapor or gas is heated. Expressed in units of Btu/lb. or Joules/gram
  • Evaporator
    Adds heat to a substance, changing it from a liquid to a gas Exothermic – when a process generates heat
  • Event
    A programmable On/Off output used to signal peripheral equipment or a process
  • Explosion Proof Enclosure
    An enclosure, housing, or panel which will contain a internal gas explosion. This prevents an explosion from setting off surrounding area. Housing contents must not produce surface temperature which would ignite flammable gases or vapors in the vicinity.
  • Extension Wire
    Wire intended to connect a sensor (typically a thermocouple or RTD) to a panel or control. Thermocouple wire must be the same type (cannot be mixed). RTD wire may be copper.
  • Fahrenheit
    A temperature scale with 32°F defined as the ice point and 212°F as the boiling point of water at sea level
  • Fire Point
    The temperature at which the fluid will sustain a fire if ignited by an outside ignition source. It is quite common for heat transfer systems to be operated at temperatures above the fire point of the fluid as ignition sources should always be far removed from any heat transfer system.
  • Flash Point
    The temperature at which the vapors produced from a fluid will ignite (flash off) with the presence of an ignition source (the fluid will not burn at this point). The flash point is important from the viewpoint of safety; however, it is quite common for heat transfer systems to be operated at temperatures above the flash point of the fluid.
  • Flow Rate
    Speed or velocity of fluid movement
  • FM (Factory Mutual Research Corporation)
    A third party approval agency, which tests and approves equipment for service in various areas and condition
  • fpm
    Flow velocity in feet per minute
  • fps
    Flow velocity in feet per second
  • Freezing Point
    The temperature where a material changes from a liquid to a solid
  • Frequency
    The number of event occurrences or cycles over a specified period of time
  • Fuse
    A device that interrupts power in a circuit when an overload occurs
  • Fuzzy Logic
    A method that allows control decisions to be made upon approximate or incomplete information. It is a continuous decision making function that can prevent initial overshoot and set point differentials
  • GFCI
    (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) – an electronic circuit which monitors the current flow from a conductor to a ground reference. When the current exceeds a predetermined value, the GFCI shuts the circuit down
  • gph
    The volumetric flow rate in gallons per hour
  • gpm
    The volumetric flow rate in gallons per minute
  • Ground
    The electrical line having the same potential as the surrounding earth; the negative side of a DC power supply; the reference point for an electrical system.
  • Grounded Junction
    A thermocouple junction in which the sheath and conductors are welded together forming a completely sealed integrated junction.
  • Header (manifold)
    A pipe or tube collects or separates flow from 1 pipe to multiple pipes or vice versa
  • Heat
    Thermal energy expressed in Calories, Btu’s or Joules
  • Heat Balance
    Proper sizing of the heat source to the requirements of the system including heat losses
  • Heat Exchangers
    Typically metal tubes or coils designed to heat or cool solutions, with a fluid (or steam) circulating through the coil to obtain the desired effect
  • Heat of Fusion
    The amount of energy required to change one pound of a material from a solid to a liquid without an increase in temperature, expressed in Btu/lb
  • Heat of Vaporization
    The amount of energy required to change one pound of a material from a liquid to a vapor without an increase in temperature, expressed in Btu/lb
  • Heat Offset
    For some PID controllers; allows the creation of a dead area where neither heat nor cold is on, to prevent the process from oscillating between heat and cool
  • Heat Sink
    In power control, typically aluminum plates or ?ns which conducts heat away from the power control devices (SCR's) and dissipates the heat by free or forced convection.
  • Heat Tracing
    Heat applied to pipes or tanks, to replace heat lost through the insulation to the ambient
  • Heat Transfer
    A process of thermal energy flowing from one body to another - Conduction: the transfer of heat from one particle of matter to another; Convection: the transfer of heat from one part of a particle to another by the mixing of the warmer particles with the cooler; and Radiant: the transfer of heat from one body to another as the result of the bodies emitting and absorbing radiation energy.
  • Heat transfer Fluid System
    Consist of forced circulation using a pump, heater(s), control panel and related safeties, ready to connect to a process
  • Heat Transfer Fluid Vaporizer
    A vaporizer for heat transfer fluids, to obtain improved process heat transfer by recovery of the heat of vaporization
  • Heat Transfer Medium
    A gas, liquid or solid through which heat flows from the heat source to the work
  • Heat Transfer Systems
    Consist of forced circulation using a pump, heater(s), control panel and related safeties, ready to connect to a process
  • Hertz
    Units of expression for frequency, measured in cycles per second
  • High Temperature Wire
    Special wire with high temperature insulation and nickel. Can withstand higher temperatures than plastic insulated copper conductor wire used for general connections. High temperature terminations require special nickel or stainless steel lugs, if lugs are used.
  • Hi-Pot Test
    The application of a high voltage to an electrical conductor to test the surrounding insulation
  • Hot oil temperature control units
    Consist of forced circulation using a pump, heater(s), control panel and related safeties, ready to connect to a process
  • Hydrocarbons
    Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. Petroleum fluids consist chiefly of hydrocarbons.
  • Hydrophilic
    Having an affinity for water, capable of uniting with or dissolving in water.
  • Hydrophobic
    Having antagonism for water; not capable of uniting or mixing with water.
  • Hysteresis
    The temperature sensitivity designed into the on/off control action between the on and off switching points. Expressed in percentage of control range.
  • Ice Point
    The temperature where pure water freezes (0°C or 32°F)
  • Immersion Heaters
    Electric heating elements designed to heat a fluid or gas by direct contact
  • Impedance
    The total opposition in a circuit to the flow of alternating current, measured in ohms, represented by “Z”
  • Infrared
    or radiation is the exchange of energy by electromagnetic waves. The infrared spectrum extends from the deep red end of the visible spectrum to the microwave region of the radio spectrum, The portion adjacent to the visible spectrum is of importance to heating. Radiant heat transfer can be very efficient in directing energy from the heat source to an object.
  • Inhibitor
    A substance that slows or prevents chemical reactions, such as oxidation or corrosion.
  • Insulation Resistance
    Is the resistance of an insulator to current flow from a conductor to ground usually measured by the application of a voltage, and measuring the resulting current. The resultant resistance, which is expressed in ohms, is calculated by the formula: R= V / I
  • Insulation, Electrical
    A substance which surrounds an electrical conductor, to prevent current from flowing to or leaking to ground or to other conductors
  • Insulation, Thermal
    A material which reduces heat flow from heated areas or objects to colder objects to conserve energy improve performance, or prevent operator contact with hot objects
  • Integral
    (See Automatic Reset).
  • Intrinsic Safety Barriers
    Devices that limit current voltage and total energy delivered to a sensor or other instrument located in a hazardous area
  • Intrinsically Safe Equipment and Wiring
    Products that are not capable of releasing sufficient energy in a circuit to ignite a flammable atmosphere in a hazardous area
  • Isothermal
    A process or area that maintains a constant temperature
  • Joule
    The basic unit of thermal energy. 1 Joule equals 1 ampere passed through a resistance of 1 ohm for 1 second
  • Junction
    A thermocouple junction is the point at which two alloys are joined. A typical thermocouple circuit would have a measuring and a reference junction.
  • Kelvin
    The unit of absolute or thermodynamic temperature scale. Zero Kelvin is absolute zero, where all molecular activity stops. No ° symbol is used. 0°C = 273.15K; 100°C = 373.15K
  • Kilowatt (kW)
    1,000 watts or 3,412 Btu per hour
  • Kilowatt Hour
    Electrical unit of energy expended by one kilowatt in one hour
  • Lag
    The time delay from application of heat until the process reaches temperature or the delay in a controller responding to a temperature change
  • Least Significant Digit
    The digit farthest to the right in a display
  • Light Emitting Diode (LED)
    A solid state device which produces light from the flow of electric current through a semiconductor. These are individual indicating lights or segmented readouts used to display temperature.
  • Liquid Level Control
    Detects liquid level below a reference depth and can be used for replenishment
  • Load
    The electrical demand of a process expressed as wattage, amps or resistance (ohms)
  • Manifold (header)
    A pipe or tube collects or separates flow from 1 pipe to multiple pipes or vice versa
  • Manual Reset
    The adjustment on a proportional control which shifts the proportioning band in relation to the set point to eliminate droop or offset error
  • Mass Flow Rate
    Weight of a substance flowing per unit of time past a specific cross-sectional area within a system
  • Maximum Allowable Load Resistance
    The maximum resistance (in ohms) into which a control can deliver specified current. Usually specified for 4-20mA outputs, and is limited by internal control supply voltage.
  • Mean Temperature
    The maximum and minimum temperature average of a process at equilibrium
  • Mechanical Relay
    An electromechanical device that completes or breaks a circuit by closing or opening electrical contacts
  • Mercury Contactor (Mercury Displacement Relay)
    A Mechanical relay with mercury as the current carrying conductor. They contain mercury, a hazardous substance, not permitted in some plants.
  • Microprocessor
    The central processing unit (CPU) that performs the logic operations in a micro-computer system. The microprocessor in a process or instrument control decodes instructions from the stored program, performs algorithmic and logic functions, and produces signals and commands.
  • Milliamp
    One thousandth of an amp
  • Millivolt
    One thousandth of a volt
  • Moisture Resistant Housing
    A terminal housing designed to meet the requirements of NEMA 4.
  • NEC (National Electrical Code)
    Regulations and specifications for wiring as published by the National Fire Protection Association, Inc.
  • NEMA
    National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association
  • Noise (control)
    Undesirable electrical interference on the signal wires
  • Noise Suppression
    A device used to reduce electrical interference
  • Normal Mode Rejection Ratio
    The ability of an instrument to reject interference of the line frequency (50-60Hz) across the input terminals
  • NPS/NPSM (National Pipe Straight Thread)
    A straight not tapered thread that meets ANSI/ASME standards
  • NPT (National Pipe Thread)
    A tapered thread that meets ANSI/ASME standards in the USA
  • Offset
    The difference in temperature between the set point and the actual process temperature
  • OHM
    The unit of electric resistance
  • Open Loop Control
    A control system with no sensing feedback
  • Open Sensor Output Command
    For some PID controls, allows selection of shut down or switch to pre-assigned power output (i.e. 40%), in the event of an open sensor
  • OSHA
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (or Agency) is a US Government agency that specifies and enforces safety in the workplace
  • Output Limit
    For some PID controls, allows selection of a maximum percent of full power. Useful of heater is oversized, or for fast heat up followed by close control
  • Overshoot
    Excursion of temperature above the set point
  • Oxidation
    The process of combining with oxygen. All petroleum products are subject to oxidation to some degree. The reaction increases with rise in temperature. Oxidation produces oil-insoluble oxidized materials, which result in viscosity increase and deposits.
  • Oxidation Inhibitor
    A chemical additive that minimizes the formation of harmful acids and varnish forming compounds that form when a fluid is subjected to air at elevated temperatures.
  • Oxidation Stability
    The resistance of lubricants to chemically react with oxygen. The absorption and reaction of oxygen may lead to deterioration of lubricants.
  • Oxidative Degradation
    Oxidative degradation is the reaction of oxygen (in air) with the fluid by a free radical mechanism to form larger molecules which end up as polymers or solids. These thicken the fluid and increase its viscosity. A more visous fluid will be more difficult to pump, have poorer heat transfer characteristics as well as an increased chance of coke formation. Oxidation is also accompanied by an increase in the acidity (TAN) of the fluid.
    As with all chemical reactions, oxidation occurs more rapidly as the temperature is increased. At room temperature, the reaction rate is hardly measurable. However, it can become a factor in the life of the fluid in certain styles of heat transfer systems. At temperatures encountered in systems in use in the plastics extrusion and die casting industries, as an example, oxidation is the main cause of fluid degradation.
  • Phase
    Time based relationship between an intermittent function and a reference. Electrically, the expression is in angular degrees to describe the voltage or current relationship of two alternating waveforms
  • Phase Angle Control
    SCR ?ring mode in which the SCR’s are turned on for a portion of each half cycle. Necessary for high inrush and/or inductive loads
  • Phase Proportioning
    A temperature control form where the power supplied to the process is controlled by limiting the phase angle of the line voltage
  • PID
    Three mode temperature control: proportional; integral (automatic reset); and derivative (rate)
  • Polarity
    Having two oppositely charged poles: one positive, one negative
  • Pour Point
    The lowest temperature at which a liquid will pour under specified conditions.
  • Pour-Point Suppressants
    Prevent insoluble wax molecules in oil from building a honeycomb (lattice-like structure) at colder temperatures. Particularly useful for parafiinic oils. Gives useful ability to pour at lower temperatures.
  • Process Alarm
    A fixed alarm or secondary set point value independent of the primary set point. Should a process value exceed this value, an alarm condition would register.
  • Process Value
    The indicated value of the parameter being measured/controlled
  • Process Variable
    The parameter being controlled or measured such as temperature, flow, level, pressure, etc
  • Programmable Controller
    The ability of controller to vary the process temperature (PV) by changing the set point (SP) as a function of time. The controller varies the process according to the selected program. The program is stored as a series of segments. See also Ramp, Dwell, and Step
  • Proportioning Band
    The temperature band in degrees within which a control’s proportioning function is active. The width is usually adjustable, and is expressed in degrees or as a percent of span.
  • Proportioning Control Mode
    When process temperature approaches set point and enters the proportioning band, the output is switched on and off at the established cycle time. The change in power to the load provides a throttling action which results in less temperature overshoot. This cycling will continue until on and off times are equal.
  • Protocol, Ethernet Modbus
    Common transportation protocol for the Internet and is the defacto standard of corporate enterprise systems. Ethernet is a hardwire, typically category 5e cable with RJ45 connectors Hub port.
  • Protocol, LAN
    Network layer protocols that are responsible for exchanging information between routers so that the routers can select the proper path for network traffic of communication.
  • Protocol, Modbus
    A defined digital communication network that has one master and one or more slave devices. The Modbus protocol defines an orderly exchange of information from the master device to slave devices. Others devices are: DeviceNet, ControlNet, EtherNet, Profibus
  • Protocol, SPI
    Society Plastics International digital communications protocol (RS-485 driven).
  • psia
    pounds per square inch absolute. Pressure reference to a vacuum
  • psig
    pound per square inch gauge. Pressure reference to ambient air pressure
  • Pump Tank
    A metal or non-metallic chiller system water tank with a weir to separate hot return water and cooled supply water
  • Ramp
    A programmed rise in temperature
  • Range (control)
    An area between two limits in which a control action takes place, expressed in upper and lower limits
  • Rankine
    An absolute temperature scale based upon the Fahrenheit scale with 180° between the ice point and boiling point of water. 0°F = 459.67°R
  • Rate (derivative)
    A control function that measures the rate of increase or decrease of the system temperature and brings the control into an accelerated proportioning action. This mode prevents an overshoot condition at initial heat-up and with system disturbances.
  • Rate Time
    The interval over which the system temperature is sampled for the derivative function
  • Remote set point
    The signal sent from the customers host control to the Mokon controller which will adjust the working setpoint (SP) temperature.
  • Remote Set point and Retransmission
    Analog communications allowing the controller to send and receive process variable information, most common available signal types are 0-10 vDC and 4-20 mA.
  • Remote Shutdown
    A feature permitting the shutdown of output from a remote contact opening or closing
  • Repeatability
    The ability to give the same output or measurement under repeated identical conditions
  • Resistance
    the resistance to the flow of electric current measured in ohms
  • Resolution Sensitivity
    The amount of temperature change that must occur before the control will actuate. It may be expressed in temperature or as a percentage of the control’s scale
  • Response Time
    In analog instruments, the time required for a change of the measured quantity to change the indication. In sensors, the time required to reach 63.2% of the step change.
  • Retransmission
    The signal that is sent back from the Mokon controller to the customers host control and is a representation of the working process variable temperature (PV).
  • Retransmit Output
    Analog output scaled to the process or the set point value
  • RS232 or RS 422-485 Input/Output Signal
    A serial interface suitable for connection between a digital control and a personal computer, a host computer or printer
  • RTD
    A temperature sensing probe of finely wound platinum wire that has a linear resistance change for a corresponding temperature change. The resistance increases as the temperature rises. A base resistance of 100 ohms at 32°F is the industry (DIN) standard.
  • Saturation Temperature
    The boiling temperature of a liquid at the existing pressure
  • SCFM
    Volumetric flow rate in cubic feet per minute at 60°F (15°C) and standard atmospheric pressure
  • SCR
    Silicon Controlled Rectifier
  • Self-tune
    An internal program in some PID controllers, which allows the control to experience the process and internally calculate parameters to obtain good process control operation
  • Sensor Breakdown Protection
    circuitry which ensures safe process shut down in the event of sensor failure
  • Sensor Selection
    A menu or hardware feature on controls which allows selection of a number of thermocouple types, RTD’s and /or other sensors
  • Serial Communication
    Digital communication allowing one or more instruments to be connected using a 2 or 4 wire connection. The communication is done using a protocol.
  • Serial Communications
    A method of transmitting data between devices
  • Serial Interface
    the hardware and wiring to connect control(s) with digital communications to a computer. Typical choices are RS232 (single drop), RS 422, 458 (multi-drop).
  • Set Point
    Control setting to achieve or maintain temperature
  • Set Point Accuracy
    The potential error between a measured value and the control setting
  • Shield
    Material surrounding a conductor(s) to prevent interference of electrostatic or EMI from external sources
  • Shorted SCR Detection
    Circuitry in some SCR’s to detect a shorted SCR in a power control module. Usually the output can be an alarm to alert operator that unit needs service.
  • Shunt Trip
    A coil, designed to turn off the main disconnect on a panel, when energized. Typically used for large SCR panels, to drop the load if high limit is reached.
  • Single circuit chillers
    Single compressor used to reject heat from a industrial process
  • Slide Wire Feedback
    A potentiometer that varies resistance in response to a valve position. This provides valve position information to the valve controller.
  • Soak
    To raise the temperature of a metal object in a heated environment to produce a metallurgical change. Also, a pre-programmed time to provide a set point to a process, as used in a ramp-soak program.
  • Soft Start
    Reduces voltage on initial start-up which reduces power to the heaters
  • Solid State Relay
    A solid state switching device which completes or breaks a circuit electrically with no moving parts
  • Span
    The difference between the upper and lower limits of a controller’s range
  • Speci?c Heat
    The ratio of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of a mass of material 1 degree to the thermal energy required to raise an equal mass of water 1 degree
  • Specific Gravity
    The ratio of mass of any material to the same volume of pure water at 4°C
  • Stability (control)
    The ability of an instrument or sensor to maintain a constant output when a constant input is applied
  • Standard
    Reference point from which references or calibrations are made
  • Step
    The set point (SP) changes instantaneously from one value to a new value.
  • Super Heating
    The heating of a liquid above its boiling temperature without changing to a gaseous state; or the heating of a gas considerably above the boiling temperature.
  • Surge Current
    A higher than nominal current of short duration occurring when power is initially applied to loads
  • TAN (Total Acid Number)
    Acids are formed when a fluid comes in contact with oxygen, TAN levels are a means to show the extent of which a fluid has been oxidized. New fluids typically have a TAN less than 0.05, most fluids should be changed at and have a condemning limit of a TAN of 1.0. The rate of oxidation is minimal under 200F, however, as the temperature climbs the effects of oxidation are exponential. It is an industry accepted standard to assume the rate of oxidation doubles for each 15 degree increase above 200F.
  • TCU (Temperature Control Unit)
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Temperature control systems
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Temperature control unit (TCU)
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Temperature controllers
    An electrical/electronic control or an assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Temperature Gradient
    The range of temperature variations at various physical locations throughout a thermal system
  • Terminals
    The means to attach wiring to heaters etc to accommodate wires, lugs, or push on connectors
  • Thermal Conductivity
    The property of a material to conduct heat
  • Thermal Degradation
    Thermal degradation or thermal cracking is the breaking of carbon - carbon bonds in the fliud molecules by heat to form smaller fragments which are free radicals. The reaction may either stop at that point, in which case smaller molecules than previously existed are formed, or the fragments may react with each other to form polymeric molecules larger than previously existed in the fluid. In heat transfer terminology, the two types of degradation products are known as "low boilers" and "high boilers".
    If thermal degradation occurs at extreme temperatures greater than 400C (752F), the effect is not only to break carbon - carbon bonds but to separate hydrogen atoms from carbon atoms and form coke. In this case, fouling of the heat transfer surfaces is very rapid and the system will soon cease to operate.
    The effect of the low boilers is to decrease the flash point and viscosity of the fluid as well as to increase its vapor pressure. The effect of the high boilers is to increase the viscosity of the fluid as long as they remain in solution. However, once their solubility limit is exceeded, they begin to form solids which can foul the heat transfer surfaces.
  • Thermal Expansion
    An increase in size due to an increase in temperature
  • Thermal Fluid solutions
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Thermal fluid system
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Thermal Lag
    The time delay in the distribution of heat throughout a thermal system
  • Thermal System
    A series of components arranged and designed to provide heat. The four elements or components compromising a Thermal System are: work or load; heat source; heat transfer medium; and control system
  • Thermistor
    A temperature sensing probe manufactured of a mixture of metal oxides then encapsulated in epoxy or glass. A large change in resistance is exhibited proportional to a change in temperature. The resistance usually decreases as temperature rises.
  • Thermocouple
    A temperature sensing probe consisting of the junction of two dissimilar metals which has a millivolt output pro-portional to the difference in temperature between the “hot” junction and the lead wires (cold junction).
  • Thermolators
    An old term used to describe a TCU or temperature control system
  • Thermoregulators
    An old term used to describe a TCU or temperature control system
  • Thermowell
    A closed-end tube into which a temperature sensor is inserted to isolate it from the environment
  • Tonnage
    Measurement of a chiller's ability to cool (a ton of cooling is the amount of cooling provided by the melting of one ton of ice in one day)
  • Transducer
    A device that converts a measured variable into another form which is the transducer’s output. A thermocouple transforms heat to a millivolt output.
  • Transmitter
    A device used to transmit temperature data from the sensor.
  • Undershoot
    Excursion of temperature below set point
  • Underwriters’ Laboratories (UL)
    A third party approval agency for components and finished products
  • Ungrounded Junction
    A thermocouple junction fully insulated from the sheath
  • Variable frequency drive (VFD)
    An adjustable-speed drive, often used in centrifugal chillers, which provides energy savings over the traditional constant-speed drive
  • Viscosity
    A measure of a fluids resistance to flow. A higher viscosity is essentially a thicker fluid. It is desirable for most high temperature heat transfer fluids to have viscosity in the range of 20cst to 40cst at 104F. Another aspect of a fluids viscosity is its VI (Viscosity Index) or how a fluids viscosity is affected by temperature. It's a measure of the rate of change of viscosity with temperature. In lubricants a high VI is desirable to maintain a relatively consistent viscosity throughout the useable temperature range. In heat transfer fluids a lower VI is more desirable in order to allow the fluid to thin out (reduce viscosity) with temperature increases. This allows for more efficient thermal transfer properties.
  • Voltage
    An electrical potential, which is measured in volts
  • Water temperature control units or systems
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Watt Density
    The rated wattage of an element per unit of surface area, usually expressed in watts per square inch
  • Wattage
    A unit of measurement of electrical power. In a resistive circuit, VI = W (See Ohms Law formulas)
  • Zero Voltage (or Zero Crossover) Switching
    Completing or breaking of a circuit when the voltage wave form crosses zero voltage
  • AbsoluteZero
    Absolute zero is the zero point on the Kelvine and Rankine scale. (-273.15°C or-459.67°F)
  • Alarm
    A control condition or function, indicating that the process is at a predetermined amount above and/or below the set point
  • Alarm relay options
    Normally energized (relay energized when not in alarm) normally de-energized (relay not energized unless in alarm). Latching means a reset button must be pushed when the temperature drops below the alarm setting plus dead band
  • Algorithm
    A set of rules with a finite number of steps for solving a problem
  • Alternating Current (AC)
    An electrical power system where the voltage reverses - alternating negative and positive. Typical frequency is 50 or 60 cycles per second (Hz)
  • Ambient (Temperature)
    The temperature of the immediate surroundings in which equipment is to operate
  • Ambient Compensation
    The ability of an instrument to compensate for changes in the ambient so that the changes do not affect control accuracy
  • Ampere (amp)
    The rate of ?ow of current in a circuit
  • Analog Indication
    A meter with graduated scale and a pointer that moves to indicate process condition
  • Analog Output
    A voltage or current signal that is a continuous function of the measured parameter
  • Analog Set Point
    Potentiometer adjustment of the control setting
  • Anneal
    To relieve stress in a metal or glass material by heating to just below its melting point, then gradually cooling to ambient temperature. Annealing lowers tensile strength while increasing flexibility
  • ANSI
    American National Standards Institute
  • Anti-Foam Additive
    Causes air bubbles to break on the surface, prevents build up of foam. Can also help prevent oxidation. They cannot prevent air entrainment, but function as an aid to quicker release of entrained air.
  • Anti-Oxidant (oxidation inhibitor)
    An additive to retard oxidation.
  • Anti-Rust or Anti-Corrosion Additive
    Helps prevent oxidation of metal by displacing water from metal surfaces. It plates to metal with a polarized effect to give an internal "umbrella", helping to resist iron-oxide formation.
  • ASME
    American Society of Mechanical Engineers
  • ASTM
    American Society for Testing and Materials; an agency that standardizes testing petroleum products.
  • Atmospheric Pressure (Standard)
    Pressure exerted by the earth’s atmosphere. Measured at 60°F (15°C), at sea level, standard atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psia (pounds per square inch atmospheric)
  • Auto Ignition
    Minimum temperature which a substance must be heated without application of flame or spark to cause substance to ignite.
  • Automatic Reset (Integral)
    The integral function of a control that automatically compensates for the difference between the set point and the actual process temperature. A signal moves the proportion­ing band up or down to correct for the droop or offset error.
  • Automatic Tuning (of control parameters)
    A control that calculates the optimum PID parameters with a built-in software algorithm to eliminate manual tuning efforts
  • Auxiliary Output
    Additional outputs for control of functions other than the primary control output, such as lights, buzzers, horns or gas purges that are triggered by the control alarm function
  • AWG
    American Wire Gauge
  • AWG (American Wire Gauge)
    Refers to the diameter of both power and control circuits wires. The larger the gauge number, the smaller the wire diameter
  • Bandwidth
    The total temperature variation measured at some point in the system, normally the process
  • Blown film coolers
    An in-line cooling coil located in duct work to cool hot blown film
  • Boiling Point
    The boiling point of water (100°C or 212°F at sea level), the temperature at which a substance in the liquid state transforms to the gaseous state
  • Braid
    A flexible woven covering, usually of metal wire, covering an insulated wire to provide a ground path (or shield) or to protect from mechanical damage
  • Btu
    British Thermal Unit; the amount of thermal energy required to raise one pound of water, 1°F
  • Bulb & Capillary
    Refers to thermostat construction which has a bulb filled with a fluid in the process. The increasing heat forces the fluid through a narrow tube into a bellows. The bellows actuates a snap switch, at a temperature determined by the knob setting which moves the switch toward or away from the bellows.
  • Bulkhead Fittings
    Threaded fittings used to mount or allow a connection through the wall of a tank or casing
  • Burst Firing
    A fast cycling control output, typically 3-32VDC, used in conjunction with a solid state relay
  • Calibration
    The process of adjusting an instrument so that the indication is accurate compared to the actual value
  • Calorie
    The amount of thermal energy required to raise one gram of water 1°C at 15°C
  • Cascade
    Control function where the output of one control loop provides the set point for a second loop, which determines the control action
  • Catalyst
    A material which promotes some chemical action without itself entering into the reaction.
  • Cavitation
    In a heat transfer system, failure of the material to flow to the suction of the system pump for any reason.
  • CE
    A mark that designates compliance with European Union (EU) requirements for products sold in Europe
  • Celsius (Centigrade)
    A temperature scale with 0°C defined as the ice point and 100°C as the boiling point of water at sea level
  • Centipoise and Centistoke
    A centipoise is 1/100th of the unit of absolute viscosity (the poise), e.g., the viscosity of water at 20C is approximately one centipoise. The centipoise is derived from one kinematic unit of viscosity (the centistoke), by multiplying the latter by the density of the liquid, i.e., 1 centipoise = 1 centistoke x the density of the liquid. These units are part of the metric system, commonly used in Europe and becoming adopted in the U.S. and Canada.
  • cfm
    The volumetric flow rate of a liquid or gas in cubic feet per minute
  • Chatter
    The rapid cycling of a relay due to too narrow a bandwidth in the control
  • Chiller stall
    Interruption in the flow of refrigerant through a compressor
  • Chiller, air cooled
    Configuration of refrigeration components where heat is rejected to the surrounding air utilizing a fan to blow air over a condenser coil.
  • Chiller, Split:
    Some portion of the chiller system being remote mounted such as an air-cooled condenser where weight or space are a concern.
  • Chiller, water cooled
    Configuration of refrigeration components installed where heat is rejected utilizing a water to water heat exchanger.
  • Circuit
    A complete or partial path over which current may flow.
  • Circulating liquid temperature control systems (Temperature control unit)
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Closed Loop Control
    A control system in which process temperature changes are detected by a sensor. The feedback from the sensor allows the control to make adjustments for accurate system regulation.
  • Cold Junction Compensation
    A temperature sensitive device that prevents changes in the ambient temperature from affecting the cold junction of a thermocouple
  • Compression Fittings
    Bulkhead fittings designed to allow objects to be mounted through the wall of a tank, etc.
  • Compressor
    Increases the pressure on a substance
  • Condenser
    Converts a substance from a gas into its liquid form, extracting heat from the substance
  • Conduction
    The transfer of heat from one material at a given temperature to another material at a lower temperature, while in direct contact with each other
  • Conductivity
    The ability of heat or electricity to flow through a material
  • Continuity Check
    A test that determines whether current can flow throughout the length of a circuit
  • Control Accuracy
    Maintaining a process at the desired setting. The errors or combination of errors in the entire system including the sensor, control, power, load and design inefficiencies effect control accuracy.
  • Control Loop
    The basic control loop of any automatic control system consists of: variable (process); sensor; error detector (of control); control; control element (relay, SSR, SCR); and temperature indication
  • Control Mode
    The method in which the control restores the system temperature to set point. On/Off, proportioning, and PID are the most common control mode
  • Control Type
    Options are direct acting (cooling) and reverse acting (heating)
  • Convection
    The transfer of heat from a source or higher temperature area in a gas or liquid by the movement and mixing of the masses
  • Cooling Tower
    Heat removal device used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere through the evaporation of water or air to cool the working fluid.
  • Corrosion Inhibitor
    An additive used to retard the corrosion process.
  • CPS (Hertz)
    Cycles per Second
  • CSA
    Abbreviation for third party testing and approval agency, Canadian Standards Association
  • C-UL
    This is an acceptance of UL (Underwriter’s Laboratory) approval of a product.
  • Current
    Measured in amperes (A), is the flow of electricity. One ampere is one coulomb per second
  • Current Limiting
    A means to limit the current delivered to a load by a power control device, usually an SCR
  • Current Proportioning
    Typically 4-20 milliamp current output which provides a current proportional to the amount of control required
  • Current Transformer
    A transformer designed to accommodate an electrical conductor, and provide a reduced, but linear output at a lower current, for instrument use
  • Cycle Rate (or Cycle Time)
    In a time proportioning control, the period (usually in seconds) of time that is required to complete one on/off cycle once temperature has settled at the center of the proportioning band
  • Default Parameters
    The programming instructions permanently written in the software
  • Definite Purpose Magnetic Contactor
    Similar to a motor starter relay, used with on-off controllers for slow processes
  • Density
    Mass per unit of volume, such as lbs/cubic ft
  • Deposits
    Oil-insoluble materials that result from oxidation of the oil and contamination from external sources and settle out in system components as sludge and varnish.
  • Derivative (Rate)
    A control function that measures the rate of increase or decrease of the system temperature and prevents an overshoot condition at initial heat-up and with system disturbances
  • Deviation
    The difference between the selected value and the actual value
  • Deviation Alarm
    An offset value that follows the set point where if Deviation Alarm value is +20°F and the set point is 250°F, then the Deviation Value alarm would be 270°F
  • Deviation Meter
    The display of process temperature on meter that indicates difference of or deviation of the process temperature from the set point
  • Dielectric Strength
    An amount of voltage that an insulating material can withstand before an electrical breakdown occurs
  • Differential
    The temperature difference expressed in degrees between where the control switches off and on<
  • Differential (Dead Band)
    is the difference in degrees between temperature control on and off. Also applies to over temperature controls
  • Differential (Dead Band)
    is the difference in degrees between temperature control on and off. Also applies to over temperature controls
  • Digital Indication
    The actual process temperature in indicated by LED or LCD display
  • Digital Set Point
    The desired temperature value is set by an operator
  • DIN
    Deutsche Industrial Norms, a German agency that sets engineering standards
  • Direct Current (DC)
    An electric current flowing in one direction
  • Disconnect
    A main power switch, which provides a means to turn off power before opening a door for servicing. Most disconnects do not provide over current protection that must be provided upstream using fuses or circuit breakers
  • Display Accuracy
    The amount of potential error between a measured value and the control's displayed value
  • Drift
    A change in a value over a long period due to changes in factors such as ambient temperature, time or line voltage
  • Droop
    In time proportioning controls, the difference in temperature between the set point and where the system temperature stabilizes. Corrected by automatic or manual reset
  • Dual circuit chillers
    Multiple compressors used to improve chiller efficiency under varying load conditions
  • Dual Output
    The primary control output will regulate the process temperature. A secondary control output will be utilized for process cooling or as an alarm.
  • Duty Cycle
    The ratio of on time to on time plus off time, expressed as a percentage
  • Dwell
    A time entered into a program during which the set point (SP) remains constant.
  • Efficiency (control)
    The amount of useful output versus energy input, expressed as a percentage
  • Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
    Electrical and magnetic “noise” than can be generated when switching AC power. EMI can interfere with the operation of microprocessor based controls
  • Emissivity
    The ratio of radiant energy emitted from a surface compared to the radiant energy emitted from a black body at the same temperature
  • Endothermic
    When a process absorbs heat
  • Enthalpy
    The sum of the internal energy of a body and the product of its volume multiplied by the pressure used to evaluate the energy change occurring when a vapor or gas is heated. Expressed in units of Btu/lb. or Joules/gram
  • Evaporator
    Adds heat to a substance, changing it from a liquid to a gas Exothermic – when a process generates heat
  • Event
    A programmable On/Off output used to signal peripheral equipment or a process
  • Explosion Proof Enclosure
    An enclosure, housing, or panel which will contain a internal gas explosion. This prevents an explosion from setting off surrounding area. Housing contents must not produce surface temperature which would ignite flammable gases or vapors in the vicinity.
  • Extension Wire
    Wire intended to connect a sensor (typically a thermocouple or RTD) to a panel or control. Thermocouple wire must be the same type (cannot be mixed). RTD wire may be copper.
  • Fahrenheit
    A temperature scale with 32°F defined as the ice point and 212°F as the boiling point of water at sea level
  • Fire Point
    The temperature at which the fluid will sustain a fire if ignited by an outside ignition source. It is quite common for heat transfer systems to be operated at temperatures above the fire point of the fluid as ignition sources should always be far removed from any heat transfer system.
  • Flash Point
    The temperature at which the vapors produced from a fluid will ignite (flash off) with the presence of an ignition source (the fluid will not burn at this point). The flash point is important from the viewpoint of safety; however, it is quite common for heat transfer systems to be operated at temperatures above the flash point of the fluid.
  • Flow Rate
    Speed or velocity of fluid movement
  • FM (Factory Mutual Research Corporation)
    A third party approval agency, which tests and approves equipment for service in various areas and condition
  • fpm
    Flow velocity in feet per minute
  • fps
    Flow velocity in feet per second
  • Freezing Point
    The temperature where a material changes from a liquid to a solid
  • Frequency
    The number of event occurrences or cycles over a specified period of time
  • Fuse
    A device that interrupts power in a circuit when an overload occurs
  • Fuzzy Logic
    A method that allows control decisions to be made upon approximate or incomplete information. It is a continuous decision making function that can prevent initial overshoot and set point differentials
  • GFCI
    (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) – an electronic circuit which monitors the current flow from a conductor to a ground reference. When the current exceeds a predetermined value, the GFCI shuts the circuit down
  • gph
    The volumetric flow rate in gallons per hour
  • gpm
    The volumetric flow rate in gallons per minute
  • Ground
    The electrical line having the same potential as the surrounding earth; the negative side of a DC power supply; the reference point for an electrical system.
  • Grounded Junction
    A thermocouple junction in which the sheath and conductors are welded together forming a completely sealed integrated junction.
  • Header (manifold)
    A pipe or tube collects or separates flow from 1 pipe to multiple pipes or vice versa
  • Heat
    Thermal energy expressed in Calories, Btu’s or Joules
  • Heat Balance
    Proper sizing of the heat source to the requirements of the system including heat losses
  • Heat Exchangers
    Typically metal tubes or coils designed to heat or cool solutions, with a fluid (or steam) circulating through the coil to obtain the desired effect
  • Heat of Fusion
    The amount of energy required to change one pound of a material from a solid to a liquid without an increase in temperature, expressed in Btu/lb
  • Heat of Vaporization
    The amount of energy required to change one pound of a material from a liquid to a vapor without an increase in temperature, expressed in Btu/lb
  • Heat Offset
    For some PID controllers; allows the creation of a dead area where neither heat nor cold is on, to prevent the process from oscillating between heat and cool
  • Heat Sink
    In power control, typically aluminum plates or ?ns which conducts heat away from the power control devices (SCR's) and dissipates the heat by free or forced convection.
  • Heat Tracing
    Heat applied to pipes or tanks, to replace heat lost through the insulation to the ambient
  • Heat Transfer
    A process of thermal energy flowing from one body to another - Conduction: the transfer of heat from one particle of matter to another; Convection: the transfer of heat from one part of a particle to another by the mixing of the warmer particles with the cooler; and Radiant: the transfer of heat from one body to another as the result of the bodies emitting and absorbing radiation energy.
  • Heat transfer Fluid System
    Consist of forced circulation using a pump, heater(s), control panel and related safeties, ready to connect to a process
  • Heat Transfer Fluid Vaporizer
    A vaporizer for heat transfer fluids, to obtain improved process heat transfer by recovery of the heat of vaporization
  • Heat Transfer Medium
    A gas, liquid or solid through which heat flows from the heat source to the work
  • Heat Transfer Systems
    Consist of forced circulation using a pump, heater(s), control panel and related safeties, ready to connect to a process
  • Hertz
    Units of expression for frequency, measured in cycles per second
  • High Temperature Wire
    Special wire with high temperature insulation and nickel. Can withstand higher temperatures than plastic insulated copper conductor wire used for general connections. High temperature terminations require special nickel or stainless steel lugs, if lugs are used.
  • Hi-Pot Test
    The application of a high voltage to an electrical conductor to test the surrounding insulation
  • Hot oil temperature control units
    Consist of forced circulation using a pump, heater(s), control panel and related safeties, ready to connect to a process
  • Hydrocarbons
    Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. Petroleum fluids consist chiefly of hydrocarbons.
  • Hydrophilic
    Having an affinity for water, capable of uniting with or dissolving in water.
  • Hydrophobic
    Having antagonism for water; not capable of uniting or mixing with water.
  • Hysteresis
    The temperature sensitivity designed into the on/off control action between the on and off switching points. Expressed in percentage of control range.
  • Ice Point
    The temperature where pure water freezes (0°C or 32°F)
  • Immersion Heaters
    Electric heating elements designed to heat a fluid or gas by direct contact
  • Impedance
    The total opposition in a circuit to the flow of alternating current, measured in ohms, represented by “Z”
  • Infrared
    or radiation is the exchange of energy by electromagnetic waves. The infrared spectrum extends from the deep red end of the visible spectrum to the microwave region of the radio spectrum, The portion adjacent to the visible spectrum is of importance to heating. Radiant heat transfer can be very efficient in directing energy from the heat source to an object.
  • Inhibitor
    A substance that slows or prevents chemical reactions, such as oxidation or corrosion.
  • Insulation Resistance
    Is the resistance of an insulator to current flow from a conductor to ground usually measured by the application of a voltage, and measuring the resulting current. The resultant resistance, which is expressed in ohms, is calculated by the formula: R= V / I
  • Insulation, Electrical
    A substance which surrounds an electrical conductor, to prevent current from flowing to or leaking to ground or to other conductors
  • Insulation, Thermal
    A material which reduces heat flow from heated areas or objects to colder objects to conserve energy improve performance, or prevent operator contact with hot objects
  • Integral
    (See Automatic Reset).
  • Intrinsic Safety Barriers
    Devices that limit current voltage and total energy delivered to a sensor or other instrument located in a hazardous area
  • Intrinsically Safe Equipment and Wiring
    Products that are not capable of releasing sufficient energy in a circuit to ignite a flammable atmosphere in a hazardous area
  • Isothermal
    A process or area that maintains a constant temperature
  • Joule
    The basic unit of thermal energy. 1 Joule equals 1 ampere passed through a resistance of 1 ohm for 1 second
  • Junction
    A thermocouple junction is the point at which two alloys are joined. A typical thermocouple circuit would have a measuring and a reference junction.
  • Kelvin
    The unit of absolute or thermodynamic temperature scale. Zero Kelvin is absolute zero, where all molecular activity stops. No ° symbol is used. 0°C = 273.15K; 100°C = 373.15K
  • Kilowatt (kW)
    1,000 watts or 3,412 Btu per hour
  • Kilowatt Hour
    Electrical unit of energy expended by one kilowatt in one hour
  • Lag
    The time delay from application of heat until the process reaches temperature or the delay in a controller responding to a temperature change
  • Least Significant Digit
    The digit farthest to the right in a display
  • Light Emitting Diode (LED)
    A solid state device which produces light from the flow of electric current through a semiconductor. These are individual indicating lights or segmented readouts used to display temperature.
  • Liquid Level Control
    Detects liquid level below a reference depth and can be used for replenishment
  • Load
    The electrical demand of a process expressed as wattage, amps or resistance (ohms)
  • Manifold (header)
    A pipe or tube collects or separates flow from 1 pipe to multiple pipes or vice versa
  • Manual Reset
    The adjustment on a proportional control which shifts the proportioning band in relation to the set point to eliminate droop or offset error
  • Mass Flow Rate
    Weight of a substance flowing per unit of time past a specific cross-sectional area within a system
  • Maximum Allowable Load Resistance
    The maximum resistance (in ohms) into which a control can deliver specified current. Usually specified for 4-20mA outputs, and is limited by internal control supply voltage.
  • Mean Temperature
    The maximum and minimum temperature average of a process at equilibrium
  • Mechanical Relay
    An electromechanical device that completes or breaks a circuit by closing or opening electrical contacts
  • Mercury Contactor (Mercury Displacement Relay)
    A Mechanical relay with mercury as the current carrying conductor. They contain mercury, a hazardous substance, not permitted in some plants.
  • Microprocessor
    The central processing unit (CPU) that performs the logic operations in a micro-computer system. The microprocessor in a process or instrument control decodes instructions from the stored program, performs algorithmic and logic functions, and produces signals and commands.
  • Milliamp
    One thousandth of an amp
  • Millivolt
    One thousandth of a volt
  • Moisture Resistant Housing
    A terminal housing designed to meet the requirements of NEMA 4.
  • NEC (National Electrical Code)
    Regulations and specifications for wiring as published by the National Fire Protection Association, Inc.
  • NEMA
    National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association
  • Noise (control)
    Undesirable electrical interference on the signal wires
  • Noise Suppression
    A device used to reduce electrical interference
  • Normal Mode Rejection Ratio
    The ability of an instrument to reject interference of the line frequency (50-60Hz) across the input terminals
  • NPS/NPSM (National Pipe Straight Thread)
    A straight not tapered thread that meets ANSI/ASME standards
  • NPT (National Pipe Thread)
    A tapered thread that meets ANSI/ASME standards in the USA
  • Offset
    The difference in temperature between the set point and the actual process temperature
  • OHM
    The unit of electric resistance
  • Open Loop Control
    A control system with no sensing feedback
  • Open Sensor Output Command
    For some PID controls, allows selection of shut down or switch to pre-assigned power output (i.e. 40%), in the event of an open sensor
  • OSHA
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (or Agency) is a US Government agency that specifies and enforces safety in the workplace
  • Output Limit
    For some PID controls, allows selection of a maximum percent of full power. Useful of heater is oversized, or for fast heat up followed by close control
  • Overshoot
    Excursion of temperature above the set point
  • Oxidation
    The process of combining with oxygen. All petroleum products are subject to oxidation to some degree. The reaction increases with rise in temperature. Oxidation produces oil-insoluble oxidized materials, which result in viscosity increase and deposits.
  • Oxidation Inhibitor
    A chemical additive that minimizes the formation of harmful acids and varnish forming compounds that form when a fluid is subjected to air at elevated temperatures.
  • Oxidation Stability
    The resistance of lubricants to chemically react with oxygen. The absorption and reaction of oxygen may lead to deterioration of lubricants.
  • Oxidative Degradation
    Oxidative degradation is the reaction of oxygen (in air) with the fluid by a free radical mechanism to form larger molecules which end up as polymers or solids. These thicken the fluid and increase its viscosity. A more visous fluid will be more difficult to pump, have poorer heat transfer characteristics as well as an increased chance of coke formation. Oxidation is also accompanied by an increase in the acidity (TAN) of the fluid.
    As with all chemical reactions, oxidation occurs more rapidly as the temperature is increased. At room temperature, the reaction rate is hardly measurable. However, it can become a factor in the life of the fluid in certain styles of heat transfer systems. At temperatures encountered in systems in use in the plastics extrusion and die casting industries, as an example, oxidation is the main cause of fluid degradation.
  • Phase
    Time based relationship between an intermittent function and a reference. Electrically, the expression is in angular degrees to describe the voltage or current relationship of two alternating waveforms
  • Phase Angle Control
    SCR ?ring mode in which the SCR’s are turned on for a portion of each half cycle. Necessary for high inrush and/or inductive loads
  • Phase Proportioning
    A temperature control form where the power supplied to the process is controlled by limiting the phase angle of the line voltage
  • PID
    Three mode temperature control: proportional; integral (automatic reset); and derivative (rate)
  • Polarity
    Having two oppositely charged poles: one positive, one negative
  • Pour Point
    The lowest temperature at which a liquid will pour under specified conditions.
  • Pour-Point Suppressants
    Prevent insoluble wax molecules in oil from building a honeycomb (lattice-like structure) at colder temperatures. Particularly useful for parafiinic oils. Gives useful ability to pour at lower temperatures.
  • Process Alarm
    A fixed alarm or secondary set point value independent of the primary set point. Should a process value exceed this value, an alarm condition would register.
  • Process Value
    The indicated value of the parameter being measured/controlled
  • Process Variable
    The parameter being controlled or measured such as temperature, flow, level, pressure, etc
  • Programmable Controller
    The ability of controller to vary the process temperature (PV) by changing the set point (SP) as a function of time. The controller varies the process according to the selected program. The program is stored as a series of segments. See also Ramp, Dwell, and Step
  • Proportioning Band
    The temperature band in degrees within which a control’s proportioning function is active. The width is usually adjustable, and is expressed in degrees or as a percent of span.
  • Proportioning Control Mode
    When process temperature approaches set point and enters the proportioning band, the output is switched on and off at the established cycle time. The change in power to the load provides a throttling action which results in less temperature overshoot. This cycling will continue until on and off times are equal.
  • Protocol, Ethernet Modbus
    Common transportation protocol for the Internet and is the defacto standard of corporate enterprise systems. Ethernet is a hardwire, typically category 5e cable with RJ45 connectors Hub port.
  • Protocol, LAN
    Network layer protocols that are responsible for exchanging information between routers so that the routers can select the proper path for network traffic of communication.
  • Protocol, Modbus
    A defined digital communication network that has one master and one or more slave devices. The Modbus protocol defines an orderly exchange of information from the master device to slave devices. Others devices are: DeviceNet, ControlNet, EtherNet, Profibus
  • Protocol, SPI
    Society Plastics International digital communications protocol (RS-485 driven).
  • psia
    pounds per square inch absolute. Pressure reference to a vacuum
  • psig
    pound per square inch gauge. Pressure reference to ambient air pressure
  • Pump Tank
    A metal or non-metallic chiller system water tank with a weir to separate hot return water and cooled supply water
  • Ramp
    A programmed rise in temperature
  • Range (control)
    An area between two limits in which a control action takes place, expressed in upper and lower limits
  • Rankine
    An absolute temperature scale based upon the Fahrenheit scale with 180° between the ice point and boiling point of water. 0°F = 459.67°R
  • Rate (derivative)
    A control function that measures the rate of increase or decrease of the system temperature and brings the control into an accelerated proportioning action. This mode prevents an overshoot condition at initial heat-up and with system disturbances.
  • Rate Time
    The interval over which the system temperature is sampled for the derivative function
  • Remote set point
    The signal sent from the customers host control to the Mokon controller which will adjust the working setpoint (SP) temperature.
  • Remote Set point and Retransmission
    Analog communications allowing the controller to send and receive process variable information, most common available signal types are 0-10 vDC and 4-20 mA.
  • Remote Shutdown
    A feature permitting the shutdown of output from a remote contact opening or closing
  • Repeatability
    The ability to give the same output or measurement under repeated identical conditions
  • Resistance
    the resistance to the flow of electric current measured in ohms
  • Resolution Sensitivity
    The amount of temperature change that must occur before the control will actuate. It may be expressed in temperature or as a percentage of the control’s scale
  • Response Time
    In analog instruments, the time required for a change of the measured quantity to change the indication. In sensors, the time required to reach 63.2% of the step change.
  • Retransmission
    The signal that is sent back from the Mokon controller to the customers host control and is a representation of the working process variable temperature (PV).
  • Retransmit Output
    Analog output scaled to the process or the set point value
  • RS232 or RS 422-485 Input/Output Signal
    A serial interface suitable for connection between a digital control and a personal computer, a host computer or printer
  • RTD
    A temperature sensing probe of finely wound platinum wire that has a linear resistance change for a corresponding temperature change. The resistance increases as the temperature rises. A base resistance of 100 ohms at 32°F is the industry (DIN) standard.
  • Saturation Temperature
    The boiling temperature of a liquid at the existing pressure
  • SCFM
    Volumetric flow rate in cubic feet per minute at 60°F (15°C) and standard atmospheric pressure
  • SCR
    Silicon Controlled Rectifier
  • Self-tune
    An internal program in some PID controllers, which allows the control to experience the process and internally calculate parameters to obtain good process control operation
  • Sensor Breakdown Protection
    circuitry which ensures safe process shut down in the event of sensor failure
  • Sensor Selection
    A menu or hardware feature on controls which allows selection of a number of thermocouple types, RTD’s and /or other sensors
  • Serial Communication
    Digital communication allowing one or more instruments to be connected using a 2 or 4 wire connection. The communication is done using a protocol.
  • Serial Communications
    A method of transmitting data between devices
  • Serial Interface
    the hardware and wiring to connect control(s) with digital communications to a computer. Typical choices are RS232 (single drop), RS 422, 458 (multi-drop).
  • Set Point
    Control setting to achieve or maintain temperature
  • Set Point Accuracy
    The potential error between a measured value and the control setting
  • Shield
    Material surrounding a conductor(s) to prevent interference of electrostatic or EMI from external sources
  • Shorted SCR Detection
    Circuitry in some SCR’s to detect a shorted SCR in a power control module. Usually the output can be an alarm to alert operator that unit needs service.
  • Shunt Trip
    A coil, designed to turn off the main disconnect on a panel, when energized. Typically used for large SCR panels, to drop the load if high limit is reached.
  • Single circuit chillers
    Single compressor used to reject heat from a industrial process
  • Slide Wire Feedback
    A potentiometer that varies resistance in response to a valve position. This provides valve position information to the valve controller.
  • Soak
    To raise the temperature of a metal object in a heated environment to produce a metallurgical change. Also, a pre-programmed time to provide a set point to a process, as used in a ramp-soak program.
  • Soft Start
    Reduces voltage on initial start-up which reduces power to the heaters
  • Solid State Relay
    A solid state switching device which completes or breaks a circuit electrically with no moving parts
  • Span
    The difference between the upper and lower limits of a controller’s range
  • Speci?c Heat
    The ratio of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of a mass of material 1 degree to the thermal energy required to raise an equal mass of water 1 degree
  • Specific Gravity
    The ratio of mass of any material to the same volume of pure water at 4°C
  • Stability (control)
    The ability of an instrument or sensor to maintain a constant output when a constant input is applied
  • Standard
    Reference point from which references or calibrations are made
  • Step
    The set point (SP) changes instantaneously from one value to a new value.
  • Super Heating
    The heating of a liquid above its boiling temperature without changing to a gaseous state; or the heating of a gas considerably above the boiling temperature.
  • Surge Current
    A higher than nominal current of short duration occurring when power is initially applied to loads
  • TAN (Total Acid Number)
    Acids are formed when a fluid comes in contact with oxygen, TAN levels are a means to show the extent of which a fluid has been oxidized. New fluids typically have a TAN less than 0.05, most fluids should be changed at and have a condemning limit of a TAN of 1.0. The rate of oxidation is minimal under 200F, however, as the temperature climbs the effects of oxidation are exponential. It is an industry accepted standard to assume the rate of oxidation doubles for each 15 degree increase above 200F.
  • TCU (Temperature Control Unit)
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Temperature control systems
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Temperature control unit (TCU)
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Temperature controllers
    An electrical/electronic control or an assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Temperature Gradient
    The range of temperature variations at various physical locations throughout a thermal system
  • Terminals
    The means to attach wiring to heaters etc to accommodate wires, lugs, or push on connectors
  • Thermal Conductivity
    The property of a material to conduct heat
  • Thermal Degradation
    Thermal degradation or thermal cracking is the breaking of carbon - carbon bonds in the fliud molecules by heat to form smaller fragments which are free radicals. The reaction may either stop at that point, in which case smaller molecules than previously existed are formed, or the fragments may react with each other to form polymeric molecules larger than previously existed in the fluid. In heat transfer terminology, the two types of degradation products are known as "low boilers" and "high boilers".
    If thermal degradation occurs at extreme temperatures greater than 400C (752F), the effect is not only to break carbon - carbon bonds but to separate hydrogen atoms from carbon atoms and form coke. In this case, fouling of the heat transfer surfaces is very rapid and the system will soon cease to operate.
    The effect of the low boilers is to decrease the flash point and viscosity of the fluid as well as to increase its vapor pressure. The effect of the high boilers is to increase the viscosity of the fluid as long as they remain in solution. However, once their solubility limit is exceeded, they begin to form solids which can foul the heat transfer surfaces.
  • Thermal Expansion
    An increase in size due to an increase in temperature
  • Thermal Fluid solutions
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Thermal fluid system
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Thermal Lag
    The time delay in the distribution of heat throughout a thermal system
  • Thermal System
    A series of components arranged and designed to provide heat. The four elements or components compromising a Thermal System are: work or load; heat source; heat transfer medium; and control system
  • Thermistor
    A temperature sensing probe manufactured of a mixture of metal oxides then encapsulated in epoxy or glass. A large change in resistance is exhibited proportional to a change in temperature. The resistance usually decreases as temperature rises.
  • Thermocouple
    A temperature sensing probe consisting of the junction of two dissimilar metals which has a millivolt output pro-portional to the difference in temperature between the “hot” junction and the lead wires (cold junction).
  • Thermolators
    An old term used to describe a TCU or temperature control system
  • Thermoregulators
    An old term used to describe a TCU or temperature control system
  • Thermowell
    A closed-end tube into which a temperature sensor is inserted to isolate it from the environment
  • Tonnage
    Measurement of a chiller's ability to cool (a ton of cooling is the amount of cooling provided by the melting of one ton of ice in one day)
  • Transducer
    A device that converts a measured variable into another form which is the transducer’s output. A thermocouple transforms heat to a millivolt output.
  • Transmitter
    A device used to transmit temperature data from the sensor.
  • Undershoot
    Excursion of temperature below set point
  • Underwriters’ Laboratories (UL)
    A third party approval agency for components and finished products
  • Ungrounded Junction
    A thermocouple junction fully insulated from the sheath
  • Variable frequency drive (VFD)
    An adjustable-speed drive, often used in centrifugal chillers, which provides energy savings over the traditional constant-speed drive
  • Viscosity
    A measure of a fluids resistance to flow. A higher viscosity is essentially a thicker fluid. It is desirable for most high temperature heat transfer fluids to have viscosity in the range of 20cst to 40cst at 104F. Another aspect of a fluids viscosity is its VI (Viscosity Index) or how a fluids viscosity is affected by temperature. It's a measure of the rate of change of viscosity with temperature. In lubricants a high VI is desirable to maintain a relatively consistent viscosity throughout the useable temperature range. In heat transfer fluids a lower VI is more desirable in order to allow the fluid to thin out (reduce viscosity) with temperature increases. This allows for more efficient thermal transfer properties.
  • Voltage
    An electrical potential, which is measured in volts
  • Water temperature control units or systems
    An electrical assembly consisting of a pump, motor, electric heater, process and limit controllers, and other safety devices
  • Watt Density
    The rated wattage of an element per unit of surface area, usually expressed in watts per square inch
  • Wattage
    A unit of measurement of electrical power. In a resistive circuit, VI = W (See Ohms Law formulas)

Zero Voltage (or Zero Crossover) Switching
Completing or breaking of a circuit when the voltage wave form crosses zero voltage